CST8207 Week 02 Notes
the shell, arguments and options, man pages, file system

Ian! D. Allen – www.idallen.com

Winter 2019 - January to April 2019 - Updated 2019-02-04 14:08 EST

1 Student Feedback – How to Succeed in LinuxIndexup to index

 _   _                 _____       ____                              _   _         _     _                  
| | | | _____      __ |_   _|__   / ___| _   _  ___ ___ ___  ___  __| | (_)_ __   | |   (_)_ __  _   ___  __
| |_| |/ _ \ \ /\ / /   | |/ _ \  \___ \| | | |/ __/ __/ _ \/ _ \/ _` | | | '_ \  | |   | | '_ \| | | \ \/ /
|  _  | (_) \ V  V /    | | (_) |  ___) | |_| | (_| (_|  __/  __/ (_| | | | | | | | |___| | | | | |_| |>  < 
|_| |_|\___/ \_/\_/     |_|\___/  |____/ \__,_|\___\___\___|\___|\__,_| |_|_| |_| |_____|_|_| |_|\__,_/_/\_\

Some advice from CST student Joshua McNeely

“learn how to use the website early, because it is an incredibly useful resource (it’s the only resource needed).”

A note to you from another former student:

From: Christopher Glover
To: "Ian! D. Allen" <idallen@idallen.ca>
Subject: Fond Linux 1 memories

Hello Ian!

I wanted to thank you for all the hard work you put into teaching the
Linux I course last semester, especially with the extra difficulties
created by the work stoppage.

I was enrolled in a computer science program many years ago at
Algonquin, and I didn't manage to connect with the Linux professor's
teaching style.  As a result, I withdrew from the class, and ended
up off-track for my program, eventually leading to withdrawing from
the entire program.

I have seen several students make this same mistake in my new
program, and I was hoping you would share this email with your
level 1 students.  No matter how challenging they find Linux 1,
they really need to keep it on their schedule.  Personally, I found
your teaching style to be exactly what I needed to transform the
subject from something difficult, to a class that I truly enjoyed.
For anyone that finds Ian! D. Allen an "acquired taste" - take it
from me, you are in the very best of hands. Read all the words, do
all the worksheets and assignments, get help with them if needed,
and you will do well.

Christopher Glover
a.k.a "A Linux Person"

I encourage you to read the course notes. Don’t take my word for it:

Note from a student in 17W:

From: Damien Houle - CST8207-17W
Subject: Wonderful Website

I wanted to make sure you're aware of how much the students and myself
from last semester appreciate your awesome website. Many of us have
used it on multiple occasions throughout our level 2 course for
our current assignments because it has everything we need, as long
as we READ ALL THE WORDS! I really miss your labs and lectures and
realize now how spoiled I was to have you as my teacher and Linux
mentor. Hope the semester offers you as much fun as our class was
although i doubt it.
Best regards
Damien Houle (aka Linux people)

Note from a student in 17W:

Dear Professor Allen,
I was working with the mid-term practice last weekend, and it doesn't goes
very well. And then I go back to watch the class notes(I know! I should do
that in the first place) because I realize that I missed lots of the
information. Then I found that the pages of course notes are super helpful.
It helps me a lot!
I thought the pages are too much links and too complex when I just taking a
quick look in the first time, but I was wrong. It's so impressive that the
contents are strong logical, everything is explained in detail but not
complicated, easy to understand. Most of the things does not take me a long
time to understand.
I really should read the pages earlier!!!
It does takes me many time to adapt the new learning style as a foreign
student, but I am feeling better right now. Hopefully, it is not too
late for the test.
Anyway, just want to tell you that the course pages are very helpful. And
thank you, This is a great work for us!

Mail about the web site from the USA:

From: King, Alexander J
To: Ian Allen
Subject: Lecture cap inquiry
Date: Sat, 8 Apr 2017 05:22:52 -0400

Professor Allen,

My name is Alexander King and I'm a computer science engineering student
at The University of Toledo, Ohio. I came across a video of you rapping
the other day. I must say it was entertaining. After that I went on to
find your website <http://www.idallen.com/>. I'm writing to inquire if
any of your lectures have been recorded and if you're able and willing to
share them with me? Your <http://teaching.idallen.com> is amazing as it
is but I figured I would ask if actual lectures were out there somewhere.

All the best,
Alexander J King

2 Readings, Assignments, Labs, Tests, and ToDoIndexup to index

2.1 Read (at least) these things (All The Words)Indexup to index

  1. Week 02 Notes HTML – this file – Read All The Words
  2. File Transfer – File transfer to/from Unix/Linux machines.
    • You need to know this to upload your assignments for marking.
  3. The Unix/Linux Shell – using the shell command line in Linux
  4. Command Arguments and Options
  5. Finding Help in Manual Pages – RTFM
  6. File System and Pathnames – ROOT, basename, absolute, relative, dot, dot dot
    • Read this before you start any of the Worksheets.
  7. List of Commands – Command names you should know, listed by week
  8. Video Tutorials on Lynda.com – tagged by week number
  9. Linux and Sysadmin News in the World

2.2 Assignments this weekIndexup to index

Check the due date for each assignment and put a reminder in your agenda, calendar, and digital assistant. Just like in the Real World, not all due dates are on the same days or at the same times.

2.3 Lab work this weekIndexup to index

2.3.1 Worksheets

Worksheets are preparation for your assignments. You can’t do the assignments without having done the worksheets first, and you can’t do the worksheets without having first read the Course Notes: 1. Read. 2. Worksheets. 3. Assignment.

Make notes from the worksheets on how each command works. What do the options used in the worksheets mean, for each command? (See the weekly List of Commands.)

Form a small study group to do the worksheets. Each person tries the example given, and you make sure you all get the same answers. Worksheets are not for hand-in; they are not worth marks; the assignments test your knowledge of the lectures and worksheets.

The worksheets are available in four formats: Open Office (ODT), PDF, HTML, and Text. Only the Open Office format allows you “fill in the blanks” in the worksheet. The PDF format looks good but doesn’t allow you to type into the blanks in the worksheet. The HTML format is crude but useful for quick for viewing online.

Do NOT open the Worksheet ODT files using any Microsoft products; they will mangle the format and mis-number the questions. Use the free Libre Office or Open Office programs to open these ODT documents. On campus, you can get a copy here: Course Introduction: Install Libre Office.

Worksheets #02 and #03 require you to have read File System and Pathnames:

Worksheets prepare you for the upcoming assignments.

2.4 Upcoming testsIndexup to index

Follow this link to see all your upcoming Quizzes and Tests. The dates are also posted on the Course Home Page and on Brightspace CST8207-19W Home.

For full marks, read the Test Instructions (all the words) before your midterm tests.

  1. First Midterm test: 45 minutes; in your one-hour lecture class in Week 6.
  2. Second Midterm test: 45 minutes; in your one-hour lecture class in Week 10.

Tests take place in your one-hour lecture class, not in your lab period. You must write the test in the lecture class in which you are registered.

3 Notes from the ClassroomIndexup to index

3.1 Fifteen minute rule: don’t waste your timeIndexup to index

See the Course Introduction: Fifteen Minute Rule

3.2 Course Linux Server (CLS) account no loginIndexup to index

As of 3am Tuesday January 15, 12 out of 96 students still had not logged in to the Course Linux Server. You will need to know how to log in to work on Assignment #02 HTML this week. See your lab instructor for help reading all the words.

3.3 Locked out of the Course Linux ServerIndexup to index

As I said last week, if you typed your CLS userid or password incorrectly more than about three times from off-campus, you got your IP address locked out. When you are locked out, follow the directions in Course Linux Server: Geting Locked Out for finding out your real IP address and getting it unblocked.

3.4 Assignment #1: Read All The WordsIndexup to index

Some students have submitted the two files as two assignment uploads instead of submitting the two files in the same, one assignment upload.

Some students submitted two files, then submitted another more recent assignment with only one file in it. I only mark the most recent submission, and it’s missing one file.

Both files for this assignment must be uploaded and submitted in the same assignment. See this image of incorrect assignment.

I only mark the most recent assignment. If it only has one file in it, you lose half your marks. Make sure your most recent assignment upload has two files in it.

found 70/94 userids who submitted something (as of Friday morning)
xxxxxxxx image file width 1280 over 1024
xxxxxxxx: Bad file name: xxxxxxxx-assignment01.txt.txt
xxxxxxxx wrong image upload: xxxxxxxx-headshot.jpg.jpg
xxxxxxxx: Bad file name: xxxxxxxx-assigmen01.txt
xxxxxxxx wrong image upload: Xxxxxxxx-headshot.jpg
xxxxxxxx: missing answer file (only jpg uploaded)
xxxxxxxx image file height 1200 over 1024
xxxxxxxx image file width 1200 over 1024
xxxxxxxx: Bad file name: xxxxxxxx-assignment01.text
xxxxxxxx image file height 1279 over 1024
xxxxxxxx image file width 215 under 300
xxxxxxxx wrong image upload: xxxxxxxx-headshot.JPG
xxxxxxxx: Bad file name: xxxxxxxx-assignment01.txt.txt
xxxxxxxx image file height 3024 over 1024
xxxxxxxx image file width 2419 over 1024
xxxxxxxx wrong image upload: xxxxxxxx-headshort.jpg
xxxxxxxx image file width 1280 over 1024
xxxxxxxx missing image upload
xxxxxxxx: Bad file name: xxxxxxxx-headshot-jpg.lnk
xxxxxxxx missing image upload
xxxxxxxx image file width 1280 over 1024
xxxxxxxx image file height 2335 over 1024
xxxxxxxx image file width 2063 over 1024
xxxxxxxx image file height 3088 over 1024
xxxxxxxx image file width 2320 over 1024
xxxxxxxx image file height 1440 over 1024
xxxxxxxx image file width 1080 over 1024
xxxxxxxx wrong image upload: xxxxxxxx-headshot.jpg.jpg
xxxxxxxx image file height 2115 over 1024
xxxxxxxx image file width 1677 over 1024
xxxxxxxx image file height 1260 over 1024
xxxxxxxx image file width 1102 over 1024
xxxxxxxx: Bad file name: xxxxxxxx-assingment1.txt

3.5 Trying to use privileged commands sudo and su on the CLSIndexup to index

No, you are not allowed to use privileged commands such as sudo or su on my Course Linux Server. Use your own Linux virtual machine if you want to play with those commands.

3.6 Don’t use the place-holder userid abcd0001Indexup to index

4 Getting a job reference from your professorIndexup to index

Note from another former student:

I just wanted to thank you again for the reference that you me when
applying for a government position last year.
I ended up getting the job and I am part of a great team.
Thanks again,

If you want a good reference from me, get great marks, arrive on time, and keep your lab class attendance up-to-date. This is documented in the Course Introduction.

5 Copying from other students – plagiarismIndexup to index

Over 15% of the class were caught plagiarizing their assignments last term.

There is no group work in this course. Do your own assignments.

Review the Course Introduction notes on Plagiarism.

If you copy the work of other students or if you let your work be copied by other students, you both could fail the course.

6 TutoringIndexup to index

Many students find that hiring a personal peer tutor helps them get through the first term. Financial assistance is available. See the Tutoring heading in the Course Introduction.

7 Attacks on the CLSIndexup to index

The CLS is on the open Internet and subject to attack. On bad days, attacks happen every few seconds. Below are some commands you can use on the CLS to investigate the attacks by looking in some system log files.

  1. Count the current number of lines, words, and characters in the system file /etc/hosts.evil.ipset that has a list of locked out IP addresses:

    $ wc /etc/hosts.evil.ipset
  2. Show the ten most persistent attacks:

    $ sort -rnk 5 /etc/hosts.evil.ipset | head                           

7.1 Bruce Schneier on cyber attacksIndexup to index


“For decades, hackers have used techniques such as jump hosts, VPNs, Tor and open relays to obscure their origin, and in many cases they work. I’m sure that many national intelligence agencies route their attacks through China, simply because everyone knows lots of attacks come from China.”

Take Notes in Class
| Ian! D. Allen, BA, MMath  -  idallen@idallen.ca  -  Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
| Home Page: http://idallen.com/   Contact Improv: http://contactimprov.ca/
| College professor (Free/Libre GNU+Linux) at: http://teaching.idallen.com/
| Defend digital freedom:  http://eff.org/  and have fun:  http://fools.ca/

Plain Text - plain text version of this page in Pandoc Markdown format

Campaign for non-browser-specific HTML   Valid XHTML 1.0 Transitional   Valid CSS!   Creative Commons by nc sa 3.0   Hacker Ideals Emblem   Author Ian! D. Allen